There has been much confusion regarding the difference between the Last Supper and the Passover meal. Let us look at the various accounts in the Gospels.
Take note that the first day of unleavened bread as mentioned in the first verse that we see refers to Passover and not the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread.
17 And on the first day of Unleavened Bread the taught ones came to יהושע, saying to Him, “Where do You wish us to prepare for You to eat the Pĕsaḥ?”
18 And He said, “Go into the city to a certain man, and say to him, ‘The Teacher says, “My time is near. I am to perform the Pĕsaḥ at your house with My taught ones.” ’ ”
19 And the taught ones did as יהושע had ordered them, and prepared the Pĕsaḥ.
20 And when evening came, He sat down with the twelve.
21 And while they were eating, He said, “Truly, I say to you, one of you shall deliver Me up.”
22 And they were deeply grieved, and began to say to Him, each of them, “Master, is it I?”
23 And He answering, said, “He who has dipped his hand with Me in the dish, he shall deliver Me up.
24 Indeed, the Son of Aḏam goes as it has been written concerning Him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Aḏam is delivered up! It would have been good for that man if he had not been born.
25 And Yehuḏah – he who delivered Him up – answering, said, “Rabbi, is it I?” He said to him, “You have said it.”
26 And as they were eating, יהושע took bread, and having blessed, broke and gave it to the taught ones and said, “Take, eat, this is My body.”
27 And taking the cup, and giving thanks, He gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you.
28 “For this is My blood, that of the renewed covenant, which is shed for many for the forgiveness of sins.
29 “But I say to you, I shall certainly not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on till that day when I drink it anew with you in the reign of My Father.”
30 And having sung a song, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
Remember that Passover is the 14th of the First month. This was the 14th and therefore this was the Passover meal which Yeshua ate with them. However this was not the day when the animals were sacrificed. Yeshua this night symbolized what would happened to Him and told them plainly yet they did not fully understand until afterwards.
12 And on the first day of Unleavened Bread, when they were slaughtering the Pĕsah lamb, His taught ones said to Him, “Where do You wish us to go and prepare, for You to eat the Pĕsaḥ?”
13 And He sent out two of His taught ones and said to them, “Go into the city, and there a man bearing a jar of water shall meet you, follow him.
14 And wherever he enters, say to the master of the house, ‘The Teacher says, Where is the guest room in which I am to eat the Pĕsaḥ with My taught ones?” ’
15 And he shall show you a large upper room, furnished, ready. Prepare for us there.
16 And His taught ones went out and came into the city, and found it as He said to them, and they prepared the Pĕsaḥ.
17 And evening having come, He came with the twelve.
18 And as they sat and ate, יהושע said, “Truly, I say to you, one of you who is eating with Me shall deliver Me up.”
19 And they began to be grieved, and to say to Him one by one, “Is it I?” And another, “Is it I?”
20 And He answering, said to them, “It is one of the twelve, he who is dipping with Me in the dish.
21 The Son of Aḏam is indeed going, as it has been written of Him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Aḏam is delivered up! It would have been good for that man if he had not been born.
22 And as they were eating, יהושע took bread, having blessed, broke it, gave it to them and said, “Take, eat, this is My body.”
23 And taking the cup, giving thanks, He gave it to them, and they all drank from it.
24 And He said to them, “This is My blood, that of the renewed covenant, which is shed for many.
25 Truly, I say to you, I shall certainly no more drink of the fruit of the vine till that day when I drink it anew in the reign of Elohim.
26 And having sung a song, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
We see that IMMEDIATELY after the Pesach Yeshua went to the Mount of Olives. During this Pesach Yeshua told them who would betray Him and how we should keep Passover.
7 And the Day of Unleavened Bread came when the Pĕsaḥ had to be slaughtered.
8 And He sent Kĕpha and Yoḥanan, saying, “Go and prepare the Pĕsaḥ for us to eat.”
9 And they said to Him, “Where do You wish us to prepare?”
10 And He said to them, “See, as you enter into the city, a man shall meet you carrying a jar of water. Follow him into the house he enters.
11 And you shall say to the master of the house, ‘The Teacher says to you, Where is the guest room where I might eat the Pĕsaḥ with My taught ones?” ’
12 And he shall show you a large, furnished upper room. Prepare it there.
13 And going they found it as He had said to them, and they prepared the Pĕsaḥ.
14 And when the hour had come, He sat down, and the twelve emissaries with Him.
15 And He said to them, “With desire I have desired to eat this Pĕsaḥ with you before My suffering,
16 for I say to you, I shall certainly not eat of it again until it is filled in the reign of Elohim.”
17 And taking the cup, giving thanks, He said, “Take this and divide it among yourselves,
18 for I say to you, I shall certainly not drink of the fruit of the vine until the reign of Elohim comes.”
19 And taking bread, giving thanks, He broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is My body which is given for you, do this in remembrance of Me.”
20 Likewise the cup also, after supper, saying, “This cup is the renewed covenant in My blood which is shed for you.
21 “But see, the hand of him delivering Me up is with Me on the table.
22 “For indeed the Son of Aḏam goes as it has been decreed, but woe to that man by whom He is delivered up!”
23 And they began to ask among themselves, which of them it could be who was about to do this.
After reading the last account we can see that it was because Yeshua desired to eat the Pesach with them before He Himself became the Passover Lamb. It would be impossible for Yeshua to eat the Passover Lamb with them at the appropriate time after the Passover was slaughtered but this was still the 14th and was still Passover. Remember a Scriptural day is from sunset to sunset. Therefore this was Yeshua’s Last Supper and it was Yeshua eating the Pesach with his taught ones (disciples).
John does not give an account on this meal.
Next we will will see what happened at Gethsemany, the Mount of Olives.
Until next time.